*Water’s coefficient of thermal expansion varies with temperature. At 4°C (39.2°F), it’s approximately 0.000208 per degree Celsius or 0.000116 per degree Fahrenheit. At 20°C (68°F), it remains close to 0.000210 per degree Celsius or 0.000117 per degree Fahrenheit. Water expands as it’s heated and contracts when cooled, with its maximum density occurring around 4°C.*

## Water Thermal Expansion Calculator

Temperature (°C) | Temperature (°F) | Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (per °C) | Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (per °F) | Expansion Ratio (%) at 20°C (68°F) |
---|---|---|---|---|

0 | 32 | 0.000210 | 0.000117 | 0.000% |

4 | 39.2 | 0.000208 | 0.000116 | ~0.008% |

20 | 68 | 0.000210 | 0.000117 | 0.000% |

37 | 98.6 | 0.000213 | 0.000118 | ~0.014% |

100 | 212 | 0.000217 | 0.000121 | ~0.021% |

## FAQs

**How do you calculate thermal expansion of water?** The thermal expansion of water can be calculated using the formula: ΔV = V₀ * β * ΔT Where: ΔV = Change in volume V₀ = Initial volume β = Coefficient of thermal expansion of water ΔT = Change in temperature

**How much does water thermally expand?** Water expands when heated. The coefficient of thermal expansion of water is approximately 0.00021 per degree Celsius (or 0.00012 per degree Fahrenheit) at around 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit).

**What is the expansion ratio of liquid water?** The expansion ratio of liquid water depends on the temperature. For example, at 20°C (68°F), it’s approximately 0.00021 per degree Celsius.

**What is the coefficient of thermal expansion of water at 4°C?** At 4°C (39.2°F), the coefficient of thermal expansion of water is approximately 0.000208 per degree Celsius.

**How much does water expand at 100°C?** At 100°C (212°F), water has expanded by approximately 0.021 (or 2.1%).

**How do you calculate heat transfer of water?** The heat transfer of water can be calculated using the formula: Q = m * c * ΔT Where: Q = Heat transfer (in joules) m = Mass of water (in kilograms) c = Specific heat capacity of water (approximately 4.184 J/g°C or 4184 J/kg°C) ΔT = Change in temperature (in degrees Celsius)

**How much does 40 gallons of water expand when heated?** Assuming a starting temperature of 20°C and heating to 100°C, 40 gallons of water (approximately 151 liters) would expand by approximately 2.1%.

**How much does a gallon of water expand when frozen?** When water freezes, it expands by approximately 9%.

**How much does water expand when it turns to steam?** Water expands significantly when it turns to steam. One gram of water at 100°C turns into approximately 1,600 times its volume in steam at the same temperature and pressure.

**What is the expansion ratio formula?** The expansion ratio formula can be expressed as: Expansion Ratio = (Vf – Vi) / Vi Where: Vf = Final volume Vi = Initial volume

**What is the heating coefficient of water?** There isn’t a specific term called “heating coefficient of water.” The coefficient of thermal expansion (β) is commonly used to describe how water’s volume changes with temperature.

**Why does water expand at 4°C?** Water exhibits an unusual behavior at around 4°C due to the structure of its hydrogen bonds. As it cools from higher temperatures, it contracts until it reaches 4°C, after which it starts expanding again. This is due to the formation of an open hexagonal lattice structure in water’s molecular arrangement, which temporarily counteracts the normal trend of contraction.

**What size expansion tank for a 120-gallon water heater?** The size of the expansion tank needed for a 120-gallon water heater depends on various factors, including the system’s pressure and the temperature increase. It’s best to consult with a plumbing professional to determine the appropriate size for your specific setup.

**Why does water expand when frozen?** Water expands when it freezes because the hydrogen bonds between water molecules form a hexagonal lattice structure, which has more volume and is less dense than the liquid water molecules’ arrangement.

**When water at 4 degrees C is heated, it expands?** Yes, when water at 4°C is heated, it expands. Water has a maximum density at around 4°C, and as it is heated or cooled from this temperature, it will expand in volume.

**Can water heat up more than 100 degrees?** Yes, water can heat up to temperatures greater than 100°C (212°F) if it is under pressure. At higher pressures, the boiling point of water increases.

**What happens when water exceeds 100 degrees?** When water exceeds 100°C (212°F) under normal atmospheric pressure, it boils and turns into steam.

**What liquid expands the most?** Water expands significantly when it turns into steam, making it one of the liquids that expands the most during phase change.

**How many BTU does it take to heat a gallon of water 1 degree?** It takes approximately 8.33 BTUs (British Thermal Units) to heat one gallon of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit.

**How many BTUs does it take to freeze water?** It takes approximately 144 BTUs to freeze one gallon of water at 32°F (0°C).

**What is the sensible heat transfer equation for water?** The sensible heat transfer equation for water is Q = mcΔT, where Q is the heat transfer, m is the mass of water, c is the specific heat capacity of water, and ΔT is the change in temperature.

**Does a 50-gallon water heater cost more to run than a 40-gallon?** A 50-gallon water heater may cost more to run than a 40-gallon heater because it has a larger capacity and may consume more energy to heat a greater volume of water.

**How much hot water does a 50-gallon water heater produce?** The amount of hot water a 50-gallon water heater can produce depends on the temperature setting and the rate at which hot water is used. On average, a 50-gallon heater can provide 30-40 gallons of hot water for typical household use.

**How long does it take to heat 50 gallons of water?** The time it takes to heat 50 gallons of water depends on the power of the heating element in the water heater. On average, it may take 1 to 2 hours to heat the entire tank.

**How much ice equals 1 gallon of water?** One gallon of water is equivalent to approximately 8.34 pounds (3.78 kilograms) of ice.

**How many pounds of ice does 1 gallon of water make?** One gallon of water will make approximately 8.34 pounds of ice when frozen.

**Does a pound of water weigh more when frozen?** No, a pound of water weighs the same whether it is in a liquid state or frozen. The mass remains constant.

**Can steam be hotter than 212 degrees?** Steam can be hotter than 212°F (100°C) if it is under pressure. The temperature of steam increases with increasing pressure.

**Is steam hotter than boiling water?** Yes, steam is hotter than boiling water. Steam is water vapor, and it exists at higher temperatures than the boiling point of water at a given pressure.

**At what temperature does water turn to steam?** Water turns to steam at its boiling point, which depends on pressure. At standard atmospheric pressure, water boils at 100°C (212°F).

**What is the expansion ratio of liquid water to gas?** The expansion ratio of liquid water to gas is significant. One gram of water can expand to about 1,600 times its volume when it turns into steam at the same temperature and pressure.

**What is the coefficient of thermal expansion ratio?** The coefficient of thermal expansion ratio represents how much a material’s volume changes with temperature. For water, this ratio is approximately 0.00021 per degree Celsius at 20°C.

**What is an example of expansion ratio?** An example of expansion ratio is the expansion of water when it turns into steam. Water expands by a large factor when it undergoes this phase change.

**How many kWh does it take to heat a gallon of water?** The number of kilowatt-hours (kWh) required to heat a gallon of water depends on the initial and final temperatures and the efficiency of the heating system. As an estimation, it might take around 0.12 to 0.15 kWh to heat a gallon of water by 1°C.

**What is the heat capacity of water by temperature?** The specific heat capacity of water is approximately 4.184 joules per gram per degree Celsius (J/g°C) or 4184 joules per kilogram per degree Celsius (J/kg°C) at typical temperatures.

**How many times can water expand?** Water can expand multiple times when subjected to changes in temperature and pressure. It expands when heated and when it freezes, and it can expand even further when turning into steam.

**Why does water contract from 0 to 4 degrees?** Water contracts as it cools from 0 to 4 degrees Celsius due to the formation of a more ordered hexagonal structure of its molecules, which temporarily reduces the average spacing between them.

**What happens to water between 0 and 4 degrees?** Between 0 and 4 degrees Celsius, water contracts, becoming denser, until it reaches its maximum density at approximately 4 degrees Celsius. Beyond 4 degrees Celsius, it starts to expand as it heats up.

**What is the rule of thumb for expansion tank sizes?** A common rule of thumb is to choose an expansion tank that has a volume of about 10% of the water heater’s capacity. For example, for a 50-gallon water heater, a 5-gallon expansion tank is often recommended.

**Can you oversize an expansion vessel?** It’s generally not advisable to oversize an expansion tank significantly. An excessively large tank may not function properly and could lead to issues with pressure regulation in the system.

**Do I really need an expansion tank on my water heater?** Whether you need an expansion tank on your water heater depends on your local plumbing codes and the specifics of your plumbing system. Expansion tanks are commonly recommended in closed-loop systems to accommodate thermal expansion and prevent pressure buildup.

**What happens if you don’t let freezing water expand?** If freezing water is confined without room to expand, it can exert tremendous pressure on its container, potentially leading to burst pipes or damage to the container.

**Will water freeze if it has no room to expand?** Water will still freeze if it has no room to expand, but the expansion that occurs during freezing can lead to pressure buildup and potential damage to containers.

**What if water did not expand when frozen?** If water did not expand when frozen, it would not create the pressure that can burst pipes or containers when freezing in confined spaces. This property of water is essential for many natural processes and for preventing damage in plumbing systems.

**Does cold water expand when heated?** Yes, cold water expands when heated. As water is heated from a lower temperature to a higher one, it undergoes thermal expansion and increases in volume.

**At what temperature is water the most dense?** Water is most dense at around 4 degrees Celsius (39.2 degrees Fahrenheit).

**Does water freeze at 0 or 4 degrees?** Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit) under normal atmospheric pressure. However, its maximum density occurs at around 4 degrees Celsius.

**Why can’t you cook a hard-boiled egg on Mount Everest?** You can’t easily cook a hard-boiled egg on Mount Everest (which has low atmospheric pressure) because water boils at a lower temperature due to the reduced atmospheric pressure. The lower boiling point of water makes it difficult to achieve the necessary temperature to cook an egg thoroughly.

**How do you stop water from superheating?** To stop water from superheating (heating beyond its boiling point without boiling), you can introduce nucleation sites by adding a clean, microwave-safe object (like a wooden stick or a microwave-safe coffee stirrer) into the water before heating it in a microwave.

**Can you superheat water?** Yes, you can superheat water by heating it above its boiling point without it actually boiling. This can occur in certain conditions, especially in a clean, smooth container without nucleation sites.

**What is the 100-degree rule for water?** The 100-degree rule for water typically refers to water’s boiling point at standard atmospheric pressure, which is 100 degrees Celsius (212 degrees Fahrenheit).

**Can water reach 120 degrees?** Yes, water can reach 120 degrees Celsius (248 degrees Fahrenheit) under increased pressure, such as in a sealed container or a pressure cooker.

**Can water reach 200 degrees?** Yes, water can reach 200 degrees Celsius (392 degrees Fahrenheit) under even higher pressure, as seen in industrial steam boilers or certain industrial processes.

**How much does water expand when it turns to steam?** Water expands significantly when it turns into steam, increasing in volume by a factor of about 1,600 times at the same temperature and pressure.

**What fluid expands the most when heated?** Water is one of the fluids that expands significantly when heated, especially when it turns into steam. This expansion is more pronounced than in many other substances.

**How many BTUs do I need to heat 500 gallons of water?** To heat 500 gallons of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit, you would need approximately 4,165 BTUs.

**How many BTUs does it take to raise a pound of water 1 degree?** It takes approximately 1 BTU to raise one pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit.

**How many BTUs does it take to raise 1 gallon of water 1 degree?** To raise 1 gallon of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit, it takes approximately 8.33 BTUs.

**How many BTUs is the heat required to convert ice to water?** The heat required to convert ice to water (at 32°F or 0°C) without changing its temperature further is approximately 144 BTUs per pound of ice.

**How do you calculate the heat of formation of water?** The heat of formation (enthalpy change) of water can be calculated by finding the difference in enthalpy between the products (water) and the reactants (hydrogen and oxygen gases) in a chemical reaction. The standard heat of formation for water is -285.83 kJ/mol.

**How do you calculate the thermal diffusion equation for water?** The thermal diffusion equation for water is a partial differential equation that describes the heat conduction within water. It’s typically expressed as: ∂T/∂t = α∇²T Where: ∂T/∂t is the rate of change of temperature with respect to time. α is the thermal diffusivity of water. ∇²T is the Laplacian of temperature, representing the spatial distribution of temperature.

**How long can I shower with a 50-gallon water heater?** The duration of a shower with a 50-gallon water heater depends on several factors, including the flow rate of your showerhead and the desired temperature. On average, a 50-gallon tank may provide enough hot water for a 10-30 minute shower, assuming a typical flow rate.

**How many gallons per minute does a 40-gallon water heater use?** The gallons per minute (GPM) flow rate of a water heater depends on the specific model and heating capacity. A 40-gallon water heater can typically supply hot water at a rate of 7-9 GPM for a short duration before the hot water is depleted.

**What is the 70 rule for water heaters?** The “70% rule” for water heaters suggests that you should aim to use no more than 70% of the water heater’s capacity to ensure you have a sufficient supply of hot water. For example, if you have a 50-gallon water heater, you should avoid using more than 35 gallons of hot water before allowing it to recover.

**How much hot water does a 10-minute shower use?** The amount of hot water used in a 10-minute shower depends on the flow rate of the showerhead. On average, a 10-minute shower with a standard flow rate showerhead (2.5 GPM) can use approximately 25 gallons of water.

**How long does it take a 47-gallon water heater to heat up?** The time it takes for a 47-gallon water heater to heat up depends on the heating element’s power and the starting temperature of the water. As an estimation, it may take 1 to 1.5 hours to heat up.

**How long does it take a 40-gallon hot water tank to heat the water?** The time it takes for a 40-gallon hot water tank to heat the water depends on the power of the heating element and the starting temperature. It may take around 1 to 1.5 hours to heat the entire tank.

**How much does 1 gallon of water expand when frozen?** One gallon of water expands by approximately 9% when it freezes.

**How many gallons of water does it take to make 100 pounds of ice?** To make 100 pounds of ice, you would need roughly 12 gallons of water, as ice has a lower density than liquid water.

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