Projected Aortic Valve Area Calculator

Projected Aortic Valve Area Calculator


How do you calculate aortic valve area?

  • The most common method to calculate aortic valve area is using the continuity equation: Aortic Valve Area (AVA) = (Aortic Valve Area Proximal to Valve) × (Velocity Time Integral Proximal to Valve) / (Velocity Time Integral Across the Aortic Valve)

How do you calculate the area of the aorta?

  • The area of the aorta is usually not calculated in routine clinical practice. The focus is primarily on the aortic valve area and related parameters.

What is a good aortic valve area?

  • A normal aortic valve area is typically around 2.5 to 3.5 square centimeters (cm²).

What is the equation for effective orifice area (EOA)?

  • Effective Orifice Area (EOA) can be calculated using the Gorlin formula: EOA = (Cardiac Output) / (44.3 × (Peak Velocity) × (Mean Pressure Gradient))

What is the Hakki formula?

  • The Hakki formula is another method to calculate aortic valve area and is similar to the Gorlin formula.

What is a normal aortic valve gradient?

  • A normal aortic valve gradient is around 5-10 mmHg.

What aortic valve area is considered severe?

  • An aortic valve area of less than 1.0 cm² is generally considered severe aortic stenosis.

What is a moderate aortic valve area?

  • A moderate aortic valve area typically ranges between 1.0 to 1.5 cm².

What if the aortic valve area is less than 1?

  • A valve area less than 1.0 cm² indicates severe aortic stenosis and may require intervention.

What is the formula for effective orifice area index (EOAI)?

  • Effective Orifice Area Index (EOAI) is calculated by dividing the EOA by the patient’s body surface area (BSA).

What is the Gorlin vs. Hakki formula?

  • The Gorlin and Hakki formulas are different equations used to calculate aortic valve area, but they provide similar results. Clinicians may use either method based on their preference.

What is the normal circumference of the aortic valve?

  • The normal circumference of the aortic valve varies but is typically between 20-25 mm.

What are the 4 stages of aortic stenosis?

  • The 4 stages of aortic stenosis are:
    1. Mild
    2. Moderate
    3. Severe
    4. Severe with symptoms

How quickly does aortic stenosis get worse?

  • The rate of progression of aortic stenosis can vary among individuals. In some cases, it progresses slowly over several years, while in others, it may progress more rapidly.
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At what point does aortic stenosis require surgery?

  • Aortic stenosis may require surgery when it becomes severe, or when symptoms like chest pain, shortness of breath, or fainting occur. The timing of surgery is determined by a cardiologist or cardiac surgeon.

Can you live a normal life with moderate aortic stenosis?

  • Many individuals with moderate aortic stenosis can lead relatively normal lives, but they should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals.

What are symptoms of aortic valve problems?

  • Symptoms may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, fainting, and palpitations.

How long can you live with moderate-severe aortic stenosis?

  • Life expectancy with moderate-severe aortic stenosis can vary, but timely medical management and, if necessary, valve replacement surgery can improve outcomes.

How long can you live with a severe aortic valve?

  • Life expectancy with severe aortic stenosis is generally reduced, and treatment is necessary to improve survival.

What is an abnormal aortic valve?

  • An abnormal aortic valve can refer to a valve that is stenotic (narrowed) or regurgitant (leaky), preventing it from functioning properly.

What is the normal size of the aorta by age?

  • The normal size of the aorta can vary by age and body size. A typical aortic diameter for adults may range from 2 to 3.7 cm.

Why is effective orifice area important?

  • Effective Orifice Area (EOA) is important because it helps assess the severity of aortic stenosis and guide treatment decisions.

How do you calculate the effective area of flow?

  • The effective area of flow, typically used in the context of aortic stenosis, is calculated using the Gorlin or Hakki formula, as mentioned earlier.

What is effective flow area?

  • Effective flow area is another term for Effective Orifice Area (EOA), which measures the narrowed opening of the aortic valve.

How do you calculate EOA for aortic regurgitation (AR)?

  • EOA for aortic regurgitation is typically calculated using echocardiography and Doppler measurements to assess the regurgitant volume and fraction.

What is the EROA measurement on an echocardiogram?

  • EROA (Effective Regurgitant Orifice Area) is a measurement used to quantify the severity of valvular regurgitation, such as aortic regurgitation.

What foods should you avoid with aortic stenosis?

  • Individuals with aortic stenosis should generally avoid excessive salt intake, as it can exacerbate fluid retention and increase strain on the heart. However, specific dietary recommendations should be discussed with a healthcare provider.
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What medications should be avoided with aortic stenosis?

  • Medications that lower blood pressure excessively or slow the heart rate should be used cautiously in aortic stenosis, as they can reduce cardiac output.

Does aortic valve stenosis get worse with age?

  • Aortic stenosis often progresses with age, but the rate of progression can vary among individuals.

What should peak gradient be for aortic valve?

  • A peak gradient of 20 mmHg or less across the aortic valve is generally considered normal.

Does aortic stenosis cause shortness of breath?

  • Yes, aortic stenosis can cause symptoms like shortness of breath, especially during physical activity or exertion.

What heart sounds do you hear with aortic stenosis?

  • Aortic stenosis is associated with a heart murmur, typically a systolic ejection murmur, which may be accompanied by a clicking sound (ejection click).

Which is a symptom of late-stage aortic stenosis?

  • Late-stage aortic stenosis can be associated with symptoms such as severe shortness of breath, chest pain, and heart failure.

Is aortic stenosis a critical illness?

  • Aortic stenosis can be a serious medical condition, especially when it becomes severe or symptomatic. It may require medical intervention or surgery.

How bad is severe aortic stenosis?

  • Severe aortic stenosis is a serious condition that can lead to heart failure and reduced life expectancy if left untreated.

What is the progression rate of aortic stenosis?

  • The progression rate of aortic stenosis can vary widely among individuals. It may progress slowly over several years or more rapidly in some cases.

What size is severe aortic stenosis?

  • Severe aortic stenosis is typically defined based on aortic valve area (usually <1.0 cm²) and pressure gradients rather than the size of the valve itself.

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